This second edition provides up-to-date coverage of the most fundamental topics in this discipline. Like the first edition, this volume accessibly and comprehensively reviews the neural mechanisms of cognitive aging appropriate to both professionals and students in a variety of domains. The chapters, written by many of the most eminent scientists as well as young stars in this discipline, are organized into three sections. The first focuses on major questions regarding methodological approaches and experimental design. The second concentrates on specific cognitive abilities, including attention and inhibitory control, executive functions, memory, and emotion. The third turns to domains with health and clinical implications, such as the emergence of cognitive deficits in middle age, the role of genetics, the effects of modulatory variables, and the distinction between healthy aging and the effects of dementia and depression. Taken together, the chapters provide a unified and comprehensive overview of cognitive neuroscience of aging.