The United States has the highest rates of incarceration worldwide. People moving through the criminal legal system, from arrest to post-imprisonment, endure worse health outcomes than those who are not in contact with the system. Mass incarceration disproportionately affects various populations including low-income communities, people of color, and those with disabilities. Therefore, the combination of the negative health effects of incarceration and the disparities of those incarcerated create a larger health inequity amongst specific populations. This course explores the institutions, structures, and ideologies that create disparities within the criminal legal system and their connection to health outcomes of targeted populations.